Wednesday, April 13th, 2022
Author: Dr. Anis Zakianis, SKM, M.Kes, et al.
Title: Sociodemographic and environmental health risk factor of COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia: An ecological study
Published by: One Health Journal (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 13, 100303.(Q1 SJR)
COVID-19 is a disease caused by Corovirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has emerged rapidly on a global scale. As of June 2021, WHO reported 178,118,597 confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide. In Indonesia, there were 1,989,909 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 54,662 deaths. Jakarta reached 479,043 COVID-19 cases with 7,967 deaths.
The COVID-19 transmission occurs in two ways, that are through droplets (while coughing or sneezing) or close contact with an infected person. Many factors influence the spread of COVID-19, including sociodemographic factors and environmental health. Sociodemographic factors include population density, education level, and economic status. The following factor is environmental health which can increase a person’s vulnerability in facing the COVID-19 pandemic, including the quality and quantity of clean water, sanitation, and waste management that are influential to the COVID-19 transmission.
The research was an ecological study with a sub-district analysis unit. The population consisted of 44 sub-districts in five municipalities of DKI Jakarta. The dependent variable was the incidence of COVID-19 per 10,000 population in every sub-district in Jakarta; while, the independent variables were sociodemographic and environmental health factors. The sociodemographic factors included education level, population density, settlements on the banks of rivers, and families living in slums. The environmental health factor in this study included households that used piped water (PAM), waste transportation by the officer, households that used latrines and households that owned infiltration holes as liquid waste disposal. The data used was the 2018 Village Potential Data from the Statistics Indonesia and analyzed using correlation tests and linear regression.
The results of research by Dr. Zakianis et al from the FKM UI Department of Environmental Health published in One Health journal found that the average number of confirmed positive cases per sub-district in DKI Jakarta was 2,327 people, or 1% of the total population. The lowest incidence of COVID-19 in Jakarta was in the North Thousand Islands Sub-district (37.91 per 10,000 people) and the highest in Cempaka Putih Sub-district (179.39 per 10,000 people). The average proportion of population with secondary education was 59% and those with higher education level at 17%. The average population density in Jakarta reached 8,500 people/km2, or more than 1000 people/km2 that was in the very high category. The average population in slums was 6%. The average proportion of latrine use and waste transportation by the officer showed very good results at 100%. The proportion of clean water was classified as poor result, only by 40%. Likewise, the proportion of the availability of infiltration holes as a place for household liquid waste was only 49%. However, the proportion of septic tank use in Jakarta showed good results, reaching an average of 99%.
A higher level of education was related to the incidence of COVID-19, in which people with a higher education level likely have jobs and work in office areas. In addition, people with a higher education level generally have a better socioeconomic status, so they likely have a high mobility. People who travel outside home can increase the risks of transmission and spread of COVID-19.
The level of population density was related to the incidence of COVID-19. The high population density made prevention through maintaining a minimum distance of 1.6 – 2 m difficult, thereby increasing the transmission of COVID-19. There was also a relationship between slum settlements and the incidence of COVID-19. Slums are characterized as settlements with inadequate access to clean water, inadequate sanitation, poor housing quality, high density, and illegal housing status that can increase the risk of COVID-19 transmission. The results between the proportion of households and piped water did not show a relationship with the COVID-19 infection. This case can happen because the COVID-19 is transmitted through droplets, not water. Running water and soap are used to wash hands.
Based on the research, an approach is needed for residents with a higher level of education, especially those with office activities and high mobility. Regulations on mobility restrictions need to be enforced. Governments in high population density areas need to raise public awareness to avoid crowds and maintain personal and environmental hygiene, also prohibit a home quarantine for patients without any COVID-19 symptom by providing an alternative place of quarantine. In the future, the government is encouraged to organize slum settlements and expected to provide decent and affordable housing for the poor.
Zakianis, Adzania, F. H., Fauzia, S., Aryati, G. P., & Mahkota, R. (2021). Sociodemographic and environmental health risk factor of COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia: An ecological study. One health (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 13, 100303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100303